PORTFOLIO / ILLUSTRATION / Maternal-fetal relationships during labour
DESCRIPTION
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Maternal-fetal relationships during labour
Graphite, Adobe Photoshop CS4 & Adobe Illustrator CS4
Canadian courtroom, for the defense
Print (Illustration board)
Prof. L. Lax1, M. Corrin1 | Content expert: Dr. I. Taylor2
These illustration boards are intended to clarify difficult scientific concepts in the courtroom for a medical malpractice case. The physician is accused of negligence for his allegedly premature decision to perform a forceps delivery, which may have led to a skull fracture and cerebral palsy. The position of the fetus' head during labour is highly relevant to this case. However, the maternal-fetal relationships present serious challenges to understanding and viewers not familiar with anatomy can get easily disoriented. My solution was to contextualize everything by relating the anatomy of the fetal head, maternal pelvis, and maternal body to situate the viewer. This project served as an introduction to the guidelines and conventions in developing media for the Canadian courtroom.
1Biomedical Communications, University of Toronto 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto
ADDITIONAL IMAGES

Fetal transposition exercise

As a warm-up for our medical-legal course, we were asked to choose an image of a full-term fetus from Williams Obstetrics textbook and rotate it 90 degrees. This "mental gymnastics" exercise proved to be quite challenging! Our professor wanted us to practice looking at reference images and drawing them from different perspectives - an important skill in medical-legal illustration. My approach was to begin blocking in the major shapes on a photocopy of the original image. I then pulled lines across the page to mark important landmarks. Once all the major landmarks were in place, I eyeballed it from there.

PROCESS

Sketch process & reference photos

I spent a lot of time determining the best angle to depict the maternal pelvis and fetus for the greatest clarity. In existing visuals of the inferior view, there is often not enough context or shading/depth cues and the viewer becomes easily disoriented and confused. Thus, I opted to choose to improve on the conventional inferior view of fetal positions. (PaintTool SAI 1.01, Photoshop CS4)


Rendering process


REFERENCES
Lateral view of fetal position (Medical legal illustration board #1)
Agur, A.M.R. and A.F. Dalley. 2009. Organs of female pelvis. Grant's Atlas of Anatomy (12th ed.). New York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Fig. 3.36.
Cunningham, F.G., P.C. MacDonald, N.F. Gant, K.J. Leveno, and L.C. Gilstrap III. 1996. Williams Obstetrics (20th ed.). New York: Appleton & Lange, pp. 274-279.
Cunningham, F.G., P.C. MacDonald, N.F. Gant, K.J. Leveno, and L.C. Gilstrap III, G.D.V. Hankins, and S.L. Clark. 1993. Williams Obstetrics (19th ed.). New York: Appleton & Lange, pp. 555-561.
Demarest, R.J. and J.K. Sciarra. 1969. Conception, birth and contraception: A visual presentation. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Book Company, pp. 73-81.
Oxorn, H. 1980. Station. Human Labor & Birth (4th ed.). New York: Appleton-Century Crofts, pp. 62-63.
Inferior view of fetal positions (Medical legal illustration boards #1 and 2)
Cunningham, F.G., P.C. MacDonald, N.F. Gant, K.J. Leveno, and L.C. Gilstrap III. 1993. Williams Obstetrics (19th ed.). New York: Appleton & Lange, pp. 364-367.
Oxorn, H. 1980. Arrested transverse positions of the occiput. Human Labor & Birth (4th ed.). New York: Appleton-Century Crofts, pp. 334-341.
Left Parietal Bone Fracture Illustration (Illustration board #2)
Agur, A.M.R. and A.F. Dalley. 2009. Cranium at birth and in early childhood. Grant's Atlas of Anatomy (12th ed.). New York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Fig. 7.1.
Bosma, J.F. 1986. Cranium and mandible. Anatomy of the Infant Head. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, Fig. 3.1A.
Mohamed, A., E. Matshes, and B. Sher. 2001. An Atlas of Human Osteology. Saskatoon: Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Img. 2.12.
Petersen, K. 2010. Vertebrate Anatomy Biology 453: Amniote Skull Photos, part 2. Department of Biology, University of Washington, http://courses.washington.edu/chordate/453photos/skull_photos/amniote_skull_photos2.htm.